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Animals of Costa Rica

With over 800 species of bird, 35,000 species of insect, and 200 species of mammal in an area comparable to the state of West Virginia, Costa Rica is one of the most biodiverse countries on Earth. This great species richness is due to a variety of geographical features that give Costa Rica extremely stable temperatures over a wide range of habitats. With elevations ranging from sea level to about 3,810 meters (12,500 feet), rainfall and temperature vary dramatically from one point to another, providing unique and diverse ecosystems for the many animals which call Costa Rica their home.

Birds

The presence of over 800 species of migrant and native birds qualifies Costa Rica as an ornithologist’s paradise. Birds of all different sizes and colors fly the Costa Rican skies, many of which are not easily forgotten. Whether it be the comical up-and-down flight of the toucan or the constant call of the great kiskadee reminding you of its name, the birds of Costa Rica are sure to leave a lasting impression.

Types of birds
Bird Photo

Slaty-Tailed Trogon

Common in wet lowlands and foothills, Trogon massenagrows to about 30 centimeters (12 inches) in length and is the only trogon with an unpatterned, gray tail. Trogons are colorful birds that often remain completely still within forests.

Slaty-tailed Trogon; Photo by Matt Lerow

Great Kiskadee

The great kiskadee, Pitangus sulphuratus, is one of the largest of the flycatchers, growing to 23 centimeters (9 inches) in length. Easilydistinguishable by its call “kis-ka-dee”, it is a very vocal bird that is common throughout the country.

 

Black Vulture

The black vulture, Coragyps atratus, is a very common bird throughout all of Costa Rica. The bird is entirely black except for a white patch on the underside of its primaries. This distinguishes it in flight from the turkey vulture, which is also quite common.

 

Montezuma’s Oropendola

The most common of the three Oropendola species found in Costa Rica, Psarocolius montezuma is distinguished by its colorful head and beak. Oropendolas are colony nesting birds who build large, distinctive, “pendulous” nests that they weave out of grasses.

Oropendola Nests; Photo by Matt Lerow

Keel-Billed Toucan

Slightly smaller than the chestnut-mandibled toucan, Ramphastos sulfuratus is distinguished by its brightly colored beak. Toucans are well known for their large beaks and are common nest predators to many other birds. 

Keel-billed Toucan; Photo by Matt Lerow

Clay-Colored Thrush

Clay-Colored Thrush (Turdus grayi) is a brown in color with a yellowish bill and reddish-brown eyes. This bird commonly occurs throughout Costa Rica, except at very high elevations. This bird has a beautiful song. Per folklore, this bird sings at the end of the dry season and signals the forthcoming rainy season. Interestingly, the clay-colored thrush is the national bird Costa Rica.

 

Violet Sabrewing Hummingbird

Violet Sabrewing hummingbird (Campylopterus hemileaucarus) is the largest hummingbird species in Costa Rica. This hummingbird has a curved, medium sized bill and a full tail with prominent white corners. The male has bright-purple plumage that shades and transitions to green on its back. The female is slightly smaller and has green coloring above and grey below. Also, unlike the male, the female sabrewing only has purple on the throat area and not the rest of the body. Violet sabrewings are usually found at high elevations and occupy the forest understory, forest edges, and clearings. This hummingbird feeds on a variety of food sources, including Heliconia plants, banana plants, large ornamentals plants and nectar feeders.

 

Great Curassow

Great Curassow (Crax rubra) is a large bird species. The male is black with a white belly, and possesses a bright yellow bulbous knob on the top of its bill. Female curassows are rufous with fine black and white barring. These birds roost and nest in trees, but also walk the forest floors in search of food in the form of fallen fruit and small animals. The great curassow was once widespread in Costa Rica and found from lowlands to middle elevations; however, due to habitat loss, hunting, and other factors, this majestic bird species is now only found in mature forests in larger parks and protected reserves.

Male Great Curassow Photo Credit: Bob Ratterman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC
Female Great Curassow Photo Credit: Bob Ratterman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC

Mammals

Costa Rica is home to over 200 species of mammals, half of which are bats. The 100 species that aren’t bats include monkeys, anteaters, sloths, cats, armadillos, tapirs, peccaries, manatees, and many more. Alarm clocks are not needed in Costa Rica; the low bellow of the howler monkey will instantly wake everyone up at the crack of dawn. 

Types of mammals
Mammal Photo

Three-Toed Sloth

More common than the two-toed sloth, three-toed sloths (Bradypus sp.) have three claws on each foot. They are common throughout Costa Rica. and are usually seen hanging in cecropia trees on roadsides. One of the only predators to the three-toed sloth is the harpy eagle.

Three-toed Sloth; Photo by Morgan Beacker
Three-Toed Sloth Photo Credit: Lexi Layman

Jaguar

The jaguar, Felis onca, is the king of the rainforest. Extremely rare throughout Costa Rica, they are much more common in unbroken tracts of the Amazon. The jaguar can grow to over 135 kg (300 pounds) and two meters in length, not including its tail. Poaching is still a serious threat to its dwindling population.

 

Collared Peccary

Peccaries are even-toed ungulates, different from pigs in that their upper teeth do not point out sideways as tusks. They are very social and are rarely seen alone. The collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, is common throughout Costa Rica, and is often seen in forests and savannas. 

Collared Peccaries (La Selva); Photo by Morgan BeackerCollared Peccary Photo Credit: Bryce Patrick Stedman

Mantled Howler Monkey

Found throughout Central America, Alouatta palliata has experienced dramatic population decline due to habitat fragmentation and hunting. Like all howler monkeys, the mantled howler monkey is well known for its extremely low frequency call that can travel over a mile through thick secondary rainforest.

Mantled Howler Monkey; Photo by Jessica TischerMantled Howler Monkey Photo Credit: Jan Bowman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC

White-nosed Coati

The White-nosed Coati, Nasua narica, is a member of the raccoon family. Unlike most members of the raccoon family, the coati is active during the day. It is characterized by its long muzzle with white marks and a long banded tail. Occurring on the Caribbean and Pacific slopes and at higher elevations, it is also found in a variety of habitats. One of the best ways to spot a Coati is by looking for their erect tails, which often wave above the ground cover. Female Coati and their young are communal and will form groups ranging from 10 to 40 members. In contrast, male Coati are solitary except when breeding.

White-nosed Coati Photo Credit: Bob Ratterman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC

Honduran White Bat

The Honduran white bat, scientific name Ectophylla alba, is small bat found in the lowland rainforests of eastern Costa Rica. The white bat has white fur on its upper body and pale gray fur on its rump. Their ears, face, nose and parts of their legs and wings are bright orange. This bat species feeds on small figs and other fruits. These bats are often called “tent bats,” because they chew along the midrib of Heliconia plant leaves and other plants to form tents from the collapsed leaves. Each leaf tent is usually occupied by 4 to 10 white bats, which use the tent as a roost during the day.

Honduran White Bat Photo Credit: Heather Zimba

Red-Tailed Squirrel

The Red-tailed Squirrel, Sciurus granatensis, inhabits many types of forests from sea level to montane and is found widely in both Costa Rica and Panama, as well as several other Central and South American countries. This squirrel is fairly large and at maturity averages 17 cm in height. This squirrel has dark brown coloring on the upperparts of its body, pale to bright orange coloring on its belly, and its tail is frosted with orange. While mostly arboreal, they also descend to the ground to forage for food. Interestingly, this type of squirrel can sometimes be located by a rasping sound it makes when chewing palm nuts and other types of seeds.

 

Insects and arthropods

Though the vast majority are smaller and often inconspicuous, the insects of Costa Rica are as varied and magnificent as any other group of animals that one might encounter while exploring. Ninety percent of all butterfly species occurring in Central America can be found in Costa Rica, as well as about 14 percent of all butterfly species on Earth. Visitors to Costa Rica often find themselves tiptoeing around trails of leafcutter ants as to not disturb the pheromone markers – or more likely to avoid being attacked by soldiers. Caution: People who go to Costa Rica with absolutely no interest in insects often leave as nerdy entomology buffs. 

Types of insects and arthropods
Insects and Arthropods Photo

Blue Morpho

The blue morphos, Morpho spp., are some of the most spectacular butterflies in all of Costa Rica. With a wingspan up to 15 cm (6 inches), the morpho is camouflaged while closed up. When it flies, the brilliant metallic blue of the upper wing surface is exposed.

Blue Morphos; Photo by Jessica TischerBlue Morpho Butterfly Photo Credit: Jan Bowman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC

Postman Butterfly

Postman Butterfly (Heliconius erato) is one of the most common and easily recognized Heliconia butterflies in Costa Rica. Postman have long black forewings with red stripes and slightly curved yellow stripes on their hind wings, which distinguish them from other species of Heliconia. Poor flyers, these butterflies are often found in gardens, plantations, forest edges, and second growth. Postman are known to fly low to the ground and fly in a set route for periods of time. The repetition of their flight route is why they are commonly called Postman.

 

Rhinoceros Beetle

Megasoma elephas can grow to over 7 cm in length and is well known for its long, upcurved “horn.” Completely harmless to humans, the horn is used just like the horn of any other animal: to compete for mates. Only male rhinoceros beetles have the horn, and they can sometimes be seen dueling.

Left - Rhinoceros Beetle, Right- Hercules Beetle; Photo by Matt Lerow

Headlamp Beetle

The headlamp beetle (Pyrophorus sp.) gets its common name from the two bright luminescent spots on each side of its cephalothorax. Another interesting feature of the headlamp beetle is that it possesses a spine on the underside of its head that can be snapped to produce a violent click that thrusts the beetle into the air. This tactic of temporary flight can be used by the headlamp beetle to avoid predators or right itself if it is turned over on its back.

 

Army Ants

Army ants live in massive colonies and switch back and forth between the mobile and bivouac stages. Army ants are almost completely blind, so they rely on pheromone markers while searching for prey. Their consists of only small animals – lizards and baby birds. One of the most common species of army ant in Costa Rica is Eciton burchelli.

 

Leafcutter Ants

Leafcutter ants, Atta spp., are very common throughout all of Costa Rica. Leafcutters are often seen carrying pieces of leaf in long “highways” that move to and from their massive underground homes. Rather than eat the leaves, they use them to grow an underground fungal garden from which they feed. 

Leafcutter Ant Trail; Photo by Matt LerowLeafcutter Ant Photo Credit: Stacey Valimont

Cicadas

Cicadas are easily the most obnoxious of the Costa Rican insects and one of the loudest on Earth. Through a process known as stridulation, cicadas can create extremely loud sounds by using their own body as an amplifier. Don’t be surprised if they start up during an outdoor presentation.

 
 

Golden Orb-Weaver

Golden Orb-Weaver, Nephila clavipes, is a common spider found throughout Costa Rica. The female averages 2.5 cm in length, while the male is only one-fourth the size of the female. Typically, orb-weavers are found in open woods, edges of forests and clearings. They often attach their webs to trees and low shrubs, but will also string webs between utility lines or under bridges. Female orb-weavers create webs around 61cm in diameter. The silk used to make the webs is extremely strong, and has even been harvested and used to make crosshairs in rifle scopes, fishing lures and other products.

Golden Orb-Weaver Photo Credit: Naomi Estrada-Cruz

Guanacaste Stick Insect

Guanacaste Stick insect (Calynda bicuspis) is a walking stick insect with a distinctive body shape and appears green or brown in color. Stick insects are great mimics and use their ability to camouflage themselves as branches and remain motionless during the day to avoid predators. At night, it searches for food and mates.

Guanacaste Stick Insect Photo Credit: Jan Bowman Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC

Reptiles

The reptiles of Costa Rica alone are a good enough reason to plan a trip. Some of the most amazing are the caiman, iguanas, basilisk lizards, snakes, and sea turtles. A visit to Tortuguero, Costa Rica, home of the Caribbean Conservation Corporation, provides travelers the rare opportunity to witness the ancient nesting rituals of a number of sea turtles, possibly one of the most amazing spectacles in the entire natural world. 

Types of reptiles
Reptile Photo

Spectacled Caiman

Caiman crocodylus can be found in Caribbean and Pacific costal drainages throughout Costa Rica. Growing to about two meters in length, the spectacled caiman can be seen basking throughout coastal waterways, where they feed on anything, including snails and fish.

 

Green Iguana

The Iguana iguana is common throughout most of Costa Rica. This large lizard is commonly seen perched on tree branches that overhang rivers. Strictly herbivorous, iguanas feed on leaves, flowers, and fruit. Bacteria in the stomach that help digest cellulose are passed to offspring through coprophagy, or the consumption of feces.

Green Iguana; Photo by Matt Lerow

Eyelash Viper

Bothriechis schlegelii is a common arboreal viper found throughout the Caribbean cost of Costa Rica, as well as the mid-Pacific coast southward. Bright yellow is the most common color morph. The venom of the eyelash viper is highly toxic to humans. They are named for their distinctive eyelash-like elongated scales.

Eyelash Viper; Photo by Matt Lerow

Boa Constrictor

Boa Constrictor (Boa constrictor) is the largest and subsequently the heaviest snake in Costa Rica. This large snake can grow to around 4.4 m, but on average will only grow to be under 2 m. The body of the boa resembles that of a viper, but its head is not triangular and it lacks the heat-sensitive pit between the eyes and nostrils that are characteristics of vipers. Boa constrictors have dark stripes running vertically from the base of its eyes, and their bodies are covered in a variety of spots, bars and diamonds made up of various colors. The boa constrictor is widespread throughout Costa Rica and can be found in a range of habitats including relatively undisturbed forest, cultivated fields, and nears near human settlements.

Boa Constrictor Photo Credit: Bob Ratterman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC

Emerald Basilisk

Basiliscus plumifrons is common throughout the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. A very beautiful lizard, the emerald basilisk has three large crests along the length of its back. Though its close relative, the striped basilisk, is known as the Jesus Christ Lizard, the emerald basilisk can also run bipedally across the surface of water.

Emerald Basilisk; Photo by Matt Lerow

Leatherback Sea Turtle

Dermochelys coriacea is the largest turtle, as well as the largest reptile, on Earth. Growing to about 2 meters and up to 900 kg (2000 lbs), the leatherback is the only sea turtle lacking a hard shell. Though leatherbacks are pelagic, spending most of their lives swimming the open ocean, after reaching maturity, females return to their natal beach each year to lay eggs. 

 
 

Turnip Tail Gecko

Turnip Tail Gecko (Thecadactylus rapicauda) is a large gecko with a large head and short limbs. This gecko gets its common name from its distinctive tail, which is swollen towards the base. The turnip tail gecko is great at camouflage and will change colors depending on the time of day. During daylight hours, its color is different shades of brown, while at night the gecko changes to usually a pale gray or cream color. The turnip tail gecko is arboreal and primarily nocturnal. During the day, this gecko blends into its environment and hides out below loose bark, in tree crevices, and even in thatched roofs.

 

Amphibians

There are about 188 species of amphibian currently known to live in Costa Rica, the vast majority being frogs and toads. The beautiful colors seen in Costa Rican amphibians are not often witnessed in the United States. Falling asleep to the metallic “tink!” of the common tink frog and being witness to the beautiful colors of the red-eyed tree frog are sure to be highlights of anyone’s trip. 

Types of amphibians
Amphibian Photo

Red-Eyed Tree Frog

Agalychnis callidryas can be found in moist areas throughout the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Costa Rica.The red-eyed tree frog will suspend its egg mass above water, into which the tadpoles fall when they hatch. Red-eyed tree frogs are well known for their beautiful colors, which are completely hidden while the frog is in its cryptic position.

Red-eyed Tree Frog; Photo by Matt Lerow

Blue-Jeans Poison Dart Frog

Oophaga pumilio, formerly Dendrobates, is fairly common throughout the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Growing to little over 25 cm in length, females lay eggs in epiphytic bromeliads and other pooled water. Females will feed infertile eggs to the baby frogs until they can find food on their own, hence the new genus.

Blue Jeans Poison Dart Frog; Photo by Matt Lerow
Strawberry Poison Dart Frog Photo Credit: Bryce Patrick Stedman

Green and Black Poison Dart Frog

Green and Black Poison Dart Frog (Dendrobates auratus) is easy to identify by its distinctive color pattern of black and turquoise-green spots and blotches. The flashy coloration of the poison dart frog is designed to warn potential predators that they have powerful skin toxins that can kill predators that attempt to eat them. These powerful skin toxins in poison dart frogs, are acquired in the skin through a diet of alkaloid-rich invertebrates. This brightly-colored poison dart frog is generally found on Caribbean slopes and in the South Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica. This species favors wet lowland forests, but also tolerates secondary growth forests and shaded plantations. This frog often hides in leaf litter to avoid predators and is most active in the early morning and late afternoon. Male poison dart frogs call using a high-pitched insect like buzzing to attract females.

 

Common Tink Frog

Eleutherodactylus diastema is commonly heard throughout the Caribbean coast and the mid-Pacific coast southward. Characterized by its metallic “tink!”, the common tink frog grows slightly over 25 mm in length and can be located by its call.

Common Tink Frog; Photo by Matt Lerow

Smoky Jungle Frog

Smoky jungle frog (Leptodactylus savagi) is a large frog that is commonly found in Costa Rica. Its tan, reddish brown, brown or even purplish in color. Its color can be uniform or patterned with almost square dots and bars. This frog is generally seen after dark and has large eyes which reflect light when lit up by the beam of a flashlight. As a defense mechanism, when the smoky jungle frog is picked up it emits a loud scream and secretes slimy skin secretions that can cause rashes and a burning sensation.

Smoky Jungle Frog Photo Credit: Rebecca Rew

Cane Toad

Bufo marinus is common throughout most of Costa Rica. This very large toad is generally nocturnal, but can be found out during the day. The cane toad’s parotoid glands secrete psychoactive compounds that are toxic to many animals. 

 

Sea Life

Costa Rican sea life consists of mangroves, coral reefs, and all of the animals that live within them – the numbers are endless. Within the roots of the red mangrove live thousands of creatures which use them as shelter from predators. Coral reefs are the most diverse and colorful habitats in our planet’s oceans. Within these two amazing habitats are thousands of beautiful and amazing animals.

Types of sea life
Types of Sea Life Photo

Stoplight Parrotfish

Sparisoma viride is a commonly seen reef fish which occurs throughout the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Strictly diurnal, the parrotfish can be seen in water from 3 to 50 meters deep where it feeds on coral.

Stoplight Parrotfish Photo Credit: Jan Bowman Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC

Arrow Crab

Stenorhynchus seticornis is well known for its long, arrow-like head. The arrow crab is a scavenger that feeds on the remnants of other predators' meals. They grow from 25-76 mm (1-3 inches) in width and occur throughout the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica.

 

Spotted Eagle-Ray

Aetobatus narinari can be seen in bays, coral reefs, and estuaries throughout the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Costa Rica. Spotted eagle-rays can reach widths of over 3 meters and about 230 kilograms (500 lbs). With its shovel-like snout, the ray feeds primarily on crustaceans.

 

Lettuce Coral

Lettuce coral is common in most coral reefs and mangroves on both coasts of Costa Rica. It is called lettuce coral due to its resemblance to the leaves of lettuce. It occurs in a variety of color and shape morphs.

 

Brain Coral

Diploria strigosa is a common coral found in the reefs of Costa Rica. Called brain coral because of its raised, squiggly ridges, it also occurs in a variety of color morphs. Brain corals can grow to enormous sizes and can be found in depths of up to 45 meters.

Brain Coral, Lettuce Coral, Sea Fans; Photo by Matt LerowBrain Coral Photo Credit: Emily Olds

Diadema 

Diadema spp. are a very large group of sea urchins that occur in coral reefs throughout the world. Specific species are often hard to identify due to high levels of hybridization. Some diadema have long, sharp spines that will break off under the skin.

 

Upside-Down Jellyfish

The Cassiopeia jellyfish are unique in that they are almost always upside-down. The algae that live within their cells are better exposed to sunlight while in this position. They are very common in mangrove ecosystems throughout Costa Rica.

 

Red Cushion Starfish

The Red Cushion Starfish, Oreaster reticulatus, is a member of the family Oreasteridae. Throughout the tropical Caribbean this starfish inhabits calm, shallow waters with calcareous sandy bottoms. The cushion star is large with a central disc surrounded by five short, tapered arms. Its thick body is covered by a hard shell with raised knobby spines. While the adult cushioned stars can be brown, orange, red, or yellow, the juveniles are usually mottled green in color to avoid predators by staying camouflaged within the seagrass beds.

Red Cushion Starfish Photo Credit: Stacey Valimont

Donkey Dung Sea Cucumber

Donkey Dung Sea Cucumber, Holothuria mexicana, is a brown, long sea cucumber that is found throughout the Caribbean and Atlantic Ocean, including off the coast of Panama. This species resides in shallow, calm waters and is often found in seagrass beds and sandy ground near reef hard bottoms, mangroves, and lagoons. Donkey Dung sea cucumbers are nocturnal, feeding mostly at evening time and onward throughout the night. They are bottom feeders in that they consume small organisms such as algae, minute aquatic organisms and waste materials. Sadly, this species may ingest coastal pollution of metals such as copper, lead, zinc and nickel. This is not only an issue for the health of sea cucumbers, but may also impact the health of people who eat sea cucumbers regularly.

 

Reef Squid

Reef Squid, Sepioteuthis sepiodea, is an agile, ten-armed cephalopod with a torpedo-shaped body, two large complex eyes, eight-short arms and two longer tentacles. The squid’s two tentacles, which are tucked inside its body are armed with suckers to aim in capturing prey. Their fins extend nearly the entire length of their body and undulate rapidly as they swim. All ten appendages of the squid are "fixed to its head," and are arranged in a circle around their mouths. Reef squids are also equipped with the ability to camouflage themselves to avoid predation. Reef squid are often mottled medium green to brown on their dorsal (upper) side with lighter coloring on their ventral (under) side for camouflage from predators swimming above or below them.

Reef Squid Photo Credit: Stacey Valimont

Bottlenose Dolphin

The bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, is a common marine mammal found in tropical oceans and other warm waters around the world. There are coastal populations that migrate into bays, estuaries and river mouths, as well as offshore populations that inhabit more open waters along the continental shelf. Bottlenose dolphins travel in social groups and communicate with each other by a complex system of squeaks and whistles. Dolphins surface often to breathe and can often be spotted every few minutes as they come up for air. Once they have taken in enough air they often leap or breach to help them dive.

 

Nurse Shark

Nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, are easily identified from other shark species, by their small mouth located forward of the eyes and just under the broad snout. Nurse sharks usually range in color from light to dark brown. They can reach a maximum of 4.3 m total length and a maximum weight of 110 kg. The nurse shark is a common, reef-associated, bottom-dwelling shark found in brackish water and shallow marine environments. These sea creatures are very docile and non-aggressive. In fact, nurse sharks will generally swim away when approached.

 

Works Cited

List of works cited

Birds

  • Garrigues, Richard. The Birds of Costa Rica A Field Guide. New York: Cornell UP, 2007.
  • Reid, Fiona, Twan Leenders, Jim Zook, and Robert Dean. (2010). The Wildlife of Costa Rica: A Field Guide. London: A. & C. Black. Print.

Photo Credit

  • Bob Ratterman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC (Photographer). (2017). Male Great Curassow.
  • Bob Ratterman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC (Photographer). (2017). Female Great Curassow.

Mammals

  • Koprowski, J., Roth, L., Timm, R., Samudio, R., Reid, F. & Emmons, L. (2017). Sciurus granatensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved from http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/summary/20010/0
  • Kricher, John. A Neotropical Companion. 2nd ed. New York: Princeton UP, 1999
  • Reid, Fiona, Twan Leenders, Jim Zook, and Robert Dean. (2010). The Wildlife of Costa Rica: A Field Guide. London: A. & C. Black. Print.
  • Species Profile: Honduran White Bat. Rainforest Alliance. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.rainforest-alliance.org/species/honduran-bat 
  • White-nosed Coati - Nasua narica. (2017). Nature Works. Retrieved May 27, 2017, from http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/coati.htm

Photo Credit

  • Lexi Layman (Photographer). (2017). Three-Toed Sloth (Second Photo).
  • Bryce Patrick Stedman (Photographer). (2017). Collared Peccary (Second Photo).
  • Jan Bowman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC (Photographer). (2017). Mantled Howler Monkey (Second Photo).
  • Bob Ratterman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC (Photographer). (2017). White-nosed Coati.
  • Heather Zimba (Photographer). (2017). Honduran White Bat.

Insects and Arthropods

  • Kricher, John. A Neotropical Companion. 2nd ed. New York: Princeton UP, 1999.
  • Reid, Fiona, Twan Leenders, Jim Zook, and Robert Dean. (2010). The Wildlife of Costa Rica: A Field Guide. London: A. & C. Black. Print.

Photo Credit

  • Jan Bowman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC (Photographer). (2017). Blue Morpho Butterfly (Second Photo).
  • Stacey Valimont (Photographer). (2017). Leafcutter Ant (Second Photo).
  • Naomi Estrada-Cruz (Photographer). (2017). Golden Orb-Weaver.
  • Jan Bowman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC (Photographer). (2017). Guanacaste Stick Insect.

Reptiles

  • Guyer, Craig, and Maureen A. Donnelly. Amphibians and Reptiles of La Selva, Costa Rica, and the Caribbean Slope A Comprehensive Guide. New York: University of California P, 2004.
  • "Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)." Office of Protected Resources. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Reid, Fiona, Twan Leenders, Jim Zook, and Robert Dean. (2010). The Wildlife of Costa Rica: A Field Guide. London: A. & C. Black. Print.

Photo Credit

  • Bob Ratterman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC (Photographer). (2017). Boa Constrictor.

Amphibians

  • Guyer, Craig, and Maureen A. Donnelly. Amphibians and Reptiles of La Selva, Costa Rica, and the Caribbean Slope A Comprehensive Guide. New York: University of California P, 2004.
  • Reid, Fiona, Twan Leenders, Jim Zook, and Robert Dean. (2010). The Wildlife of Costa Rica: A Field Guide. London: A. & C. Black. Print.

Photo Credit

  • Bryce Patrick Stedman (Photographer). (2017). Blue-Jeans Poison Dart Frog (Second Photo).
  • Rebecca Rew (Photographer). (2017). Smoky Jungle Frog.

Sea Life

Photo Credit

  • Jan Bowman, Professor of Biology at SUNY JCC (Photographer). (2017). Stoplight Parrotfish.
  • Emily Olds (Photographer). (2017). Brain Coral (Second Photo).
  • Stacey Valimont (Photographer). (2017). Reef Squid.
  • Stacey Valimont (Photographer). (2017). Red Cushion Starfish.
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